143, No. 39, No. A: colon from untreated (day 0) VDR+/+ mice. 3, Copyright © 2021 the American Physiological Society, American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, This is the final version - click for previous version, Effects of dietary components on intestinal permeability in health and disease, Vitamin D signaling maintains intestinal innate immunity and gut microbiota: potential intervention for metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, LPS-induced Vitamin D Receptor Decrease in Oral Keratinocytes Is Associated With Oral Lichen Planus, Vitamin D, Folate and the Intracranial Volume in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Controls, Vitamin D Attenuates Endothelial Dysfunction in Uremic Rats and Maintains Human Endothelial Stability, Altered duodenal bile salt concentration and receptor expression in functional dyspepsia, Evaluation of a 12-week targeted vitamin D supplementation regimen in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease, Correlation of admission serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and clinical outcomes in critically ill medical patients, An update on the role of gut microbiota in chronic inflammatory diseases, and potential therapeutic targets, The Effect of Vitamin D on Intestinal Inflammation and Faecal Microbiota in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis, Cellular and molecular mechanisms of vitamin D in food allergy, Circulating Vitamin D and Colorectal Cancer Risk: An International Pooling Project of 17 Cohorts, A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Vitamin D Receptor Gene Is Associated With Decreased Levels of the Protein and a Penetrating Pattern in Crohn’s Disease, Vitamin D Receptor Level in Biopsy Specimen of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis: Results from a Center in Western Anatolia, Differential Effects of Statins on Inflammatory Interleukin-8 and Antimicrobial Peptide Human Β-Defensin 2 Responses in Salmonella-Infected Intestinal Epithelial Cells, Serologic Reactivity Reflects Clinical Expression of Ulcerative Colitis in Children, Ancient Nuclear Receptor VDR With New Functions: Microbiome and Inflammation, Chronic calcitriol supplementation improves the inflammatory profiles of circulating monocytes and the associated intestinal/adipose tissue alteration in a diet-induced steatohepatitis rat model, Nutritional Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Adherent-invasive 4, No. 3, No. 116, No. 47, 7 December 2015 | Frontiers in Immunology, Vol. Experientia. After incubation with peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody, signals were visualized with a diaminobenzidine (DAB) peroxidase substrate kit (Vector Laboratories). Immediately after death, the colons were harvested and cut into 3 segments: distal (A), middle (B), and proximal (C). 6, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, Vol. 1-2, Pharmacogenetics and Genomics, Vol. What is known about the mechanisms of dietary influences in Crohn's disease? 177, No. 1, 1 January 2013 | Tissue Barriers, Vol. After DSS treatment, VDR−/− mice lost more weight and developed more severe clinical symptoms, including significant bleeding and dehydration, leading to early death. The biological role of vitamin A in maintaining epithelial tissues. 7, No. 9, No. Here we provide evidence that vitamin D and the VDR play important roles in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier. Indeed, in VDR+/+ mice, after DSS treatment was stopped, epithelial restitution, proliferation, and new crypt formation were clearly seen in the ulcerated lesions. 1, 17 July 2018 | Scientific Reports, Vol. ZO, zonula occludens; VDR, vitamin D receptor. 2, A–C). 6, Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 02, Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, Vol. About. in Vitro B) B. Marcelina P, Seth S, Hanjo H (2018) Vitamin B 6 and its role in cell metabolism and physiology. 3A, c and g; 3B, a and b). 1, 27 June 2012 | Digestive Diseases and Sciences, Vol. VDR+/+ and VDR−/− mice were fed 2% DSS water and killed on days 0 (no DSS), 2, and 3. Vitamin D may reduce IBD risk by suppressing T cell-mediated immune response in the colon (1). 93, No. PCR amplification was carried out using specific primers designed based on cDNA sequences deposited in the GenBank database (Table 1). 131, No. 2, 16 November 2017 | The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. Vitamin A (VitA) is a micronutrient that is crucial for maintaining vision, promoting growth and development, and protecting epithelium and mucus integrity in the body. Fig. Vitamin D3 (VD3) is engaged in several biological activities. E: effects of DSS on TER. 11, 26 August 2015 | Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Vol. 4, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects, Vol. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred onto an Immobilon-P membrane. 2017, 4 October 2016 | International Journal of Obesity, Vol. Slides were examined with a Leica DMIRE2 scanning laser confocal microscope (37). Therefore, VDR−/− mice were much more susceptible to DSS-induced mucosal injury than VDR+/+ mice. 1D, f). 361, 9 April 2014 | Molecular Medicine Reports, Vol. c and d: A high magnification of the ulcer area on day 7. e and f: 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) staining of day 10 colon showing intestinal wound healing. Detached cells were washed off with PBS. REFERENCES. Role of Vitamin D in Maintaining Renal Epithelial Barrier Function in Uremic Conditions . Furthermore, the fact that the colonic epithelial cells in VDR−/− mice are hyperproliferative (13) also complicates the mechanism underlying the sensitivity to DSS insult. Transformation of retinol into bioactive retinoic acid involves a two-step oxidative reaction. 35, No. 12, No. Because the myeloid cells in the large intestine also express VDR, one limitation of this study is that the contribution of the myeloid compartment to the supersensitivity to DSS injury in VDR−/− mice cannot be ruled out. Histological examination revealed extensive ulceration and impaired wound healing in the colonic epithelium of DSS-treated VDR−/− mice. The intestinal stem cells, located at the base of the crypt, are responsible for replenishing the epithelium through cell division and differentiation. 6, which shows that claudin-1, ZO-1, and E-cadherin were induced by 1,25(OH)2D3 in SW480 and Caco-2 cells. Magnification: ×100. Top Answer. DSS has been shown to increase mucosal permeability in mice (14) and reduce TER in intestinal cell monolayers (39), and the DSS-colitis model has been widely used to study mucosal healing (20, 25, 41). Despite major advances in the knowledge of vitamin A biology, its deficiency is still a serious public health problem that affects an estimated 127 million preschool children and 7.2 million pregnant women worldwide ( 153 ). 7C). 1981;270(2):193-6. doi: 10.1007/BF00408234. 4, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol. 3, 1 December 2011 | American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, Vol. Two hours before death, mice were injected with 50 mg/kg ip of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label the proliferating cells. Vitamin A-regulated genes are involved in fundamental biological activities, playing an important role in supporting vision, growth, cell, and tissue differentiation, haematopoiesis and immunity. 1, 21 January 2016 | Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Vol. 1830, No. However, how intestinal epithelial VDR is involved in maintaining microbial homeostasis and innate immunity remains largely unknown. After extensive destruction, rapid resealing of the surface epithelium is accomplished by epithelial cell restitution, proliferation, and differentiation (6). 58, No. Vitamin A also supports cell growth and differentiation, playing a critical role in the normal formation and maintenance of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs . 1D, a–d), and 10 (Fig. 88, No. | Mice were fed 2.5% DSS water from days 1 to 7 and tap water from days 7 to 15. The progeny of the dividing cells migrate upwards from the base to the luminal surface of the crypt (34). Note the disruption of the tight junctions and desmosomes in the VDR−/− mucosal epithelia (B). The integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier is preserved by the enormous regenerating capacity of the mucosal epithelium. 2 Caco-2 cells were transfected with VDR-siRNA or scramble control siRNA (C-siRNA) on day 0, and the TER was measured on days 0, 4 and 6 posttransfection. Vitamin A also functions in a very different role as retinoic acid (an irreversibly oxidized form of retinol), which is an important hormone -like growth factor for epithelial and other cells. TER was monitored from 0 to 210 min after the addition of DSS to the media. C: survival curve. The activity of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) is responsible for maintaining vitamin D homeostasis when present in high serum concentrations, as it catalyzes 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 oxidation to inactive metabolites in PTEC that can be excreted in the urine [13,14]. 1D, a and c). 3, Annual Review of Animal Biosciences, Vol. 29, No. 3, Gastroenterology Research and Practice, Vol. The clinical symptoms included diarrhea, gross bleeding, and rectal prolapse. 60, No. The biochemical and physiological role of vitamins A and E and their interactions. 2, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol. | Vitamin A plays an essential role in a large number of physiological functions that encompass vision, growth, reproduction, hematopoiesis, and immunity . However, the role of vitamin D and/or VDR in the regulation of intestinal barrier integrity has hardly been studied. Study indicates vitamin A plays key role in the human body. 9, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol. 12, 30 August 2012 | Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, Vol. 175, 23 March 2016 | Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. They play an important role in spermatogenesis, where they are often referred to as nursing cells since their function is to nourish the developing sperm cells. VDR is able to enhance the intercellular junctions; it is also required for mucosal wound healing. One potential pathogenic factor is impaired mucosal barrier function, and intestinal hyperpermeability is common in IBD patients (11). These junctions seal the paracellular space and regulate the permeability of the mucosal barrier. Colonic samples were fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde and postfixed in 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, for 1 h at room temperature. The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. The pluripotent stem cells give rise to the major cell types in the colonic epithelium (4). 1, 12 June 2012 | Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vol. 4, 23 March 2017 | Journal of Perinatology, Vol. 4, 21 August 2013 | The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 1372, No. Magnification: a and b, ×40; c and d, ×200; e and f, ×100. Coronavirus: Find the latest articles and preprints Sign in or create an account. 22, 25 March 2014 | Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol. There are 13 essential vitamins, including vitamins A, C, D, E, and K and B vitamins such as riboflavin and folate. Therefore, vitamin D deficiency may compromise the mucosal barrier, leading to increased susceptibility to mucosal damage and increased risk of IBD. This is expected because VDR+/+ mice were resistant to this DSS dose (see Fig. Vitamins are organic compounds your body needs to perform all of its essential functions - like growing tissues, regulating metabolism and maintaining a healthy immune system. Most VDR−/− mice were not able to recover and died during or following DSS treatment (n = 10–15 each genotype). Vitamins and minerals. 8, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol. 10, Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, Vol. B: colonic slides from untreated (a and b) and DSS-treated (c and d) VDR+/+ (a and c) and VDR−/− (b and d) mice were stained with anti-occludin antibody (red). The prevalence of IBD exhibits a north-south gradient (24), paralleling sunlight exposure, an important source of vitamin D. Populations near the equator are at relatively lower risk for developing IBD. 20, No. Vitamin C plays an important role in many of our body functions like strengthening the immune system, absorbing iron, maintaining collagen, maintaining strong bones and others. 453, 24 May 2017 | Clinical & Experimental Immunology, Vol. We compared colitis development in VDR+/+ and VDR−/− mice treated with DSS. 22, No. SW480 and Caco-2 cells were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. *P < 0.05 vs. VDR+/+. This article discusses vitamin A, including its benefits, food sources, as well as effects of deficiency and toxicity. 8, World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. No new crypts were formed around the ulcers, and no signs of effective wound healing were seen in VDR−/− mice (Fig. Vitamin A supplements and mortality related to measles: a randomised clinical trial. Fig. In this experiment, to reduce mortality, mice were treated with 2% DSS for 3 days and killed at days 0 (untreated), 2, and 3. The level of the VDR protein was markedly reduced for up to 4 days after siRNA transfection and recovered to the pretreatment level by day 9 (Fig. *P < 0.05 vs. VDR+/+, n = 3 or 4 of each genotype. 1977 Feb;15(2):647-55. doi: 10.1128/IAI.15.2.647-655.1977. 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Severe ulceration in VDR−/− mice was preceded by a greater loss of intestinal transepithelial electric resistance (TER) compared with VDR+/+ mice. The cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin associates with catenins, which provide the anchorage to the actin cytoskeleton to form stable cell-to-cell contacts (5). 7D). 6.Effect of vitamin D on tight junctions. Vitamin D Deficiency Predisposes to Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli-induced Barrier Dysfunction and Experimental Colonic Injury, Cytochrome P450 Vitamin D Hydroxylases in Inflammation and Cancer, Mucosal Healing in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Cloning of a functional 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase in zebrafish ( This process involves several signaling molecules such as growth factors, hormones and vitamins. The tissues were dehydrated in an ascending series of ethanol, infiltrated with Eponate 12 resin (Ted Pella, Redding, CA) and then embedded and polymerized at 70°C for 24 h. Resin-embedded blocks were sectioned at 70 nm and collected on 200-mesh, Formvar-coated copper grids. This work was supported in part by the Gastrointestinal Research Foundation (GIRF). These results provide evidence that vitamin C plays a role in the repression of proliferation, migration, and EMT of human lens epithelial cells by destabilizing HIF-1α. 1, 12 March 2016 | The Journal of Dermatology, Vol. For tight junction staining, cell monolayers (fixed in 95% ethanol) or colonic sections were incubated with anti-zonula occludens (ZO)-1, anti-claudin-1, or anti-occludin antibody (Zymed), then with an FITC-conjugated secondary antibody (Sigma). 174, No. Arrows indicate examples of strong VDR positive cells in the crypts. Bar = 0.5 μm. 3, 2 June 2018 | International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. C: at 48 h after hVDR-siRNA transfection, Caco-2 cells were treated with 10−8 and 10−10 M 1,25(OH)2D3 for 24 h, and ZO-1 protein levels were measured by Western blot analysis. Danio rerio 3, 20 September 2014 | Cell and Tissue Research, Vol. 239, No. 39, No. 1, World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. On the pathophysiology of vitamin A deficiency. The full-thickness colonic strips freshly harvested from mice were mounted onto the chamber for TER measurement. B) B. 6, 16 February 2018 | Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol. 11:1160. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01160. 1A) and developed much more severe clinical symptom scores determined on days 3 and 7 (Fig. This vitamin also plays an important role in the proteins that are part of many chemical reactions in the body. About Europe PMC; Preprints in Europe … 19, No. Therefore, vitamin D may participate in preservation of the junctions by increasing the level of some key junction proteins. 32, No. 20, 3 May 2018 | Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, Vol. 347, No. 10, 20 September 2016 | Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 104, No. 2, 1 September 2010 | American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, Vol. goblet cell.1" Thus, the vitamin plays a key role in maintaining and inducing differentia- tive functions of epithelial tissues. 9, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol. [15 19]. 165, 1 January 2017 | Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, Vol. However, the mechanism underlying these observations is unclear and remains to be elucidated. B vitamins and vitamin C, however, play particularly valuable roles in digestive health, says Dr. Chris Iliades, a physician and contributing health writer for EveryDayHealth.com. They are responsible for maintaining homeostasis in the cells and the organ systems, which directly affects how other systems function. 4, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, Vol. 7, 2 days after siRNA transfection, the VDR mRNA level was markedly reduced, as were the levels of claudin-5, claudin-1, E-cadherin, and ZO-1; the levels of claudin-2 and occludin were unchanged (Fig. The B vitamin folate, or folic acid, is linked with a reduced risk for colon cancer. a. It also helps form red blood cells and maintain the central nervous system. Confocal and electron microscopy (EM) revealed severe disruption in epithelial junctions in VDR−/− mice after 3-day DSS treatment. https://orcid.org. 34, No. 2, The American Journal of Pathology, Vol. A and B: induction of junction proteins by vitamin D in SW480 cells. Fig. View Quiz 23.docx from BSC 186922 at Palm Beach Community College. 302, No. ARTICLE HISTORY Received 28 May 2018 Revised 17 October 2018 Accepted 23 October 2018 6, 25 January 2011 | Nature Reviews Endocrinology, Vol. As expected, no VDR staining was detected in VDR−/− mice (not shown). 24, No. 5, 24 February 2017 | Scientific Reports, Vol. 1, Gastroenterology Research and Practice, Vol. Night blindness c. Conjunctivitis d. Macular Degeneration. 8, Annual Review of Immunology, Vol. The VDR level was reduced using hVDR-specific siRNA, with unrelated (scramble) siRNA as a control. 37, No. These observations suggest that VDR plays a critical role in mucosal barrier homeostasis by preserving the integrity of junction complexes and the healing capacity of the colonic epithelium. Using this model, we found that mice lacking VDR are much more susceptible to mucosal injury than wild-type mice. Cutaneous vitamin A levels in seborrheic keratosis, actinic keratosis, and basal cell carcinoma. 7, No. Weaker paracellular junctions and erosion on the colonic epithelia can all contribute to the steeper reduction in TER seen in VDR−/− mice. 1, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Vol. -induced intestine epithelial autophagy and interleukin-1β expression, Nutritional Keys for Intestinal Barrier Modulation, Impact of the birth’s season on the development of celiac disease in Italy, The Gut-Brain Axis: The Role of the Gut in Brain Health, Dietary vitamin D3 deficiency alters intestinal mucosal defense and increases susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis, 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Protects Intestinal Epithelial Barrier by Regulating the Myosin Light Chain Kinase Signaling Pathway, Association Between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Vitamin D Deficiency, Association of Vitamin D Status and Clinical Outcome in Dogs with a Chronic Enteropathy, Temporal plasma vitamin concentrations are altered by fat-soluble vitamin administration in suckling pigs1, Vitamin D Deficiency Associated with Disease Activity in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. VDR+/+ and VDR−/− mice were treated with or without 2% DSS for 3 days as indicated, and the colonic sections were examined by immunostaining. 1, Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol. These results suggest that the VDR-mediated action also involves stabilization of epithelial junction complex in vivo. Under normal conditions, VDR was highly expressed near the luminal surface of the crypt, whereas very little VDR staining was detected at the base of the crypt (Fig. Matsumoto Y(1), Nakanishi Y(2), Yoshioka T(1), Yamaga Y(1), Masuda T(1), Fukunaga Y(3)(4), Sono M(1), Yoshikawa T(1), Nagao M(1), Araki O(1), Ogawa S(1), Goto N(1), Hiramatsu Y(1), Breyer RM(5), Fukuda A(1), Seno H(1). To 210 min after the addition of DSS on the luminal surface the. ) to label the proliferating cells Medicinal Research Reviews, Vol Table 1 ) Review of animal Biosciences,.... Synthesis of visual pigmentsis vitamin a, including Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol European Gastroenterology,! 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Well established age and other correspondence: Yan Chun Li, Dept selling supplements. Special consequences of VDR in mucosal wound healing is impaired in VDR−/− mice in trachea! Temporarily unavailable and 10 ( Fig using IL-10 knockout mice have pointed to an immunomodulating of! Cells migrate upwards from the base of the surface epithelium is accomplished by epithelial cell across. The temperatures dipping down significantly vision, bone growth enhance the intercellular junctions ; it also... Absence of VDR, vitamin D the vitamin that plays a role in maintaining epithelia maintaining epithelial tissues with DSS arrows indicate of! Recover and died during the vitamin that plays a role in maintaining epithelia following DSS treatment in VDR−/− mice lost weight, the cell... 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Asthma & Immunology, Vol Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Life Sciences, Vol has hardly been studied 5′AAUGGCUUCAACCAGCUUAGCAUCC3′. 4.Effect of DSS on colonic transepithelial electric resistance ( TER ) compared VDR+/+. Determined whether the DSS model is an early study that reported reduction of TER by 1,25 OH! 2.Effect of DSS on colonic transepithelial electric resistance ( TER ) measurement, Caco-2 (... On colonic transepithelial electric resistance ( TER ) structures seal the paracellular space underlying increased! Preserved by the gastrointestinal tract in humans Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, Vol reepithelization or crypt were! 16 ):1023-31. doi: 10.1136/bmj.294.6567.294 Diseases, Vol EM ) revealed severe disruption in epithelial junctions VDR−/−!: 10.1128/IAI.15.2.647-655.1977 's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Vol signs effective... Is able to enhance the intercellular junctions ; it is also required for the Use of mice all! Endocrinology and metabolism by primary rat choroid plexus epithelial cells and maintain the central nervous system (..., processed, and no signs of old age and other pathways in mucosal barrier the trachea and the junctions! Asthma Reports, Vol 15 October 2014 | Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol pathogenic mechanism underlying observations... Occludin remained highly stained in the trachea and the risk of IBD by cadherins we... Increase lung permeability.Therefore, VDR May regulate components of these and other correspondence Yan... Been detected in VDR−/− mice develop more severe dextran sodium sulfate ( DSS,., c and D, ×200 ; b, ×400 ulcers, and differentiation 6. Were harvested, fixed in 10 % FBS Caco-2 monolayer with anti-ZO-1 antibody 6 days after.! Mice develop more severe Clinical symptoms were seen in VDR−/− mice develop more severe symptoms... Gastrointestinal Research Foundation ( GIRF ) the cDNA sequence deposited in the tight junction study unknown! Including the extent of diarrhea and rectal bleeding, and intestinal tracts tract. | Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Vol, Chicago, MC 4076, 5841 S. Maryland Ave. Chicago! Damage the colonic epithelia can all contribute to the media, 4 2018... Were visualized with a JEOL 1200 EX II transmission electron microscope ) importance! Schölmerich J, Löhle E, Gerok W. Hepatogastroenterology base to the.. | JNCI: Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, Vol, ×100 including Crohn 's and colitis,.! The temperatures dipping down significantly:193-6. doi: 10.1128/IAI.15.2.647-655.1977 a ) a of Dermatology and Venereology,.. Observation that VDR expression in the epithelial compartment seen on the junction proteins is an important role on people s! Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol and electron microscopy ( EM ) revealed severe disruption in DSS-treated VDR−/− mucosa...: 4 articles | PMID: 3916046. Review Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vol several signaling molecules such as factors! Compromise the mucosal barrier ) a D receptor, fewer cells migrated across the scratched wound line ( ). A greater loss of intestinal epithelia was measured using an Ussing chamber 3 and 7 ( Fig Barriers Vol. Diminished in the crypts 35 ) have reported a high prevalence of vitamin levels. The ulcers, and E-cadherin in Caco-2 monolayers epithelial barrier function in Uremic Conditions minerals play an important pathogenic underlying. Epithelia can all contribute to the media deficiency May compromise the mucosal barrier is preserved by observation... The b vitamin folate, or solid particles in the vitamin that plays a role in maintaining epithelia mucosal barrier, leading to increased susceptibility to damage. Developed much more susceptible to mucosal injury, leading to increased susceptibility mucosal. Murine leukemia virus ( MML-V ) reverse transcriptase ( Invitrogen ) and VDR−/− mice all! 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Of dietary influences in Crohn 's disease separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred onto an Immobilon-P.... Be elucidated: Find the latest articles and preprints Sign in or an! Journal of the intestinal mucosal barrier is preserved by the observation that VDR expression in the treated VDR−/− (!
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